Overview of IWRM in Myanmar

Myanmar is a country rich in water resources. There are many line agencies responsible for water resources management in Myanmar such as the MOT, MOAI, MOECAF, MOC, MOEP, MOH, MOST, CDC, MOLFRD etc. The apex water body in Myanmar is the National Water Resources Council (NWRC) which was created on 25 July 2013. There ae six Technical Working Groups (TWG) working on IWRM cases. There are still a lot of need for the improvement of water resources management in Myanmar and every sector is now reforming. This is because water resources management is now a top management issue in Myanmar and it is hope that IWRM practices in Myanmar will be on par with the rest of the SEA region, if not the world.

The following is an overview of the IWRM status in Myanmar for the six key water management issues.

  1. Water Supply Management

Water supply management in Myanmar is the responsibility of the respective local government. Thus, one of the activities of the City Development Committees (Naypidaw, Yangon and Mandalay) and the Department of Rural Development is to ensure adequate water supply for their areas. Most cities and towns in Myanmar can provide water supply for domestic use but the water quality is not up to drinking water quality standard. There is a need to improve the water supply pipe networks, maintenance and technology. There is also a need for public education and participation to reduce water wastage. The Yangon City Development Committee has collaborated with JICA for the development of the Yangon Downtown Master Plan 2040.

The figure below shows the status of water supply management in Myanmar for 2010 and 2013 for six key indicators.

Myanmar - Water Supply Indicators

  1. Irrigation Management

Irrigation development in Myanmar is the responsibilities of the MOAI (ID & DA). The irrigation water management activities includes the construct ion of irrigation dams and the allocation of water for agriculture. The water are distributed from the dams via gravity and though pumping stations. Seasonal water quality tests are carried out at the dams and are not installed at the irrigation canals. There are collaboration between the NL, WB and other countries.

The following are the key irrigation management challenges in Myanmar:

  1. Public participation in water allocation and canal maintenance
  2. Balance between available water and water users
  3. GIS and RS techniques and the use of numerical modeling
  4. Sedimentation in dams

The figure below shows the status of irrigation management in Myanmar for 2010 and 2013 for three key indicators.

Myanmar - Irrigation Indicators

  1. Stormwater Management

Stormwater management is the responsibility of the City Development Committees (Yangon, Naypidaw, Mandalay) and the Department of Rural Development (MoLFRD). Urban flood occur in most cities after heavy rain. JICA has assisted in the implementation of urban planning projects for Yangon and Mandalay.

The following are the key stormwater management challenges in Myanmar:

  1. Use of urban stormwater modelling technology
  2. Public awareness on the management of the BMP for urban stormwater
  3. Urban stormwater management infrastructures requirements
  4. Inadequate historical record of stormwater flows and the need for more stormwater flow gauging stations

The figure below shows the status of stormwater management in Myanmar for 2010 and 2013 for six key indicators.

Myanmar - Stormwater Management Indicators

  1. Flood Management

Flood management in Myanmar is the responsibility of the ID (MOAI), DMH, DWIR (MOT), GAD & RRD (MoSWRR). Non-structural flood management measures are implemented by DMH and structural measures by the DWIR & ID. The DMH collect meteorological and hydrological data, forecast the flood by models. The construction of reservoirs, levees and sluice gates, dredging of the creeks by the ID and the early flood warning system are available at the DMH. The RRD is responsible for flood relief and resettlement matters. The technological universities do R&D study on flood management.

The following are the key flood management challenges in Myanmar:

  1. Data accuracy, frequency and availability
  2. More ground data recording stations are required and there is a need to improve to hourly record
  3. Actual topographic data is required
  4. Need to use more technology in flood management (models, satellite data, RS & GIS)
  5. Integration between lined agencies responsible for flood management in Myanmar
  6. Need for greater public awareness on the BMP to respond to flood emergencies

The figure below shows the status of flood management in Myanmar for 2010 and 2013 for nine key indicators.

Myanmar - Flood Management Indicators

  1. Water Pollution Management

Water pollution management in Myanmar is the responsibility of the ECD (MOECAF), DWIR (MOT), DM (MOM), YCDC, DoH (MOH). Most of the water pollution come from improper mining, drainage from industries and drainage system in the cities. River conservation regulations and environmental conservation law are used to control water polluting activities. The National Water Policy has been established and the National Water Law is now under development by the NWRC. The water pollution control regulation will be required to be developed from the National Water Law.

The following are the key water pollution management challenges in Myanmar:

  1. Need for greater public awareness and participation on the protection of river water quality.
  2. Need for water pollution monitoring system
  3. Need for R&D studies on water pollution cases
  4. Need a National Policy for Water Pollution

The figure below shows the status of water pollution management in Myanmar for 2010 and 2013 for nine key indicators.

Myanmar - Water Pollution Management Indicators

  1. Water Sanitation Management

Water sanitation management in Myanmar is the responsibility of the local authorities such as the YCDC, MCDC and DRD (MOLFRD). Currently, about 7% of Yangon’s population and 5 % of Mandalay’s population are provided with modern sanitation facilities. JICA has helped to develop the Yangon Master Plan in which there are proposals to improve the sanitation system in Yangon. The public are educated on the need to practice good water sanitation via broadcast news in MRTV, MWD, MRTV-4, etc.

The following are the key water sanitation management challenges in Myanmar:

  1. Inadequate drainage system and lack of topographic data
  2. Lack of regular maintenance of the drainage system and sewage treatment plants
  3. Lack of public awareness on good sanitation practices
  4. Lack of records and R&D studies on water sanitation BMP in Myanmar

The figure below shows the status of water sanitation management in Myanmar for 2010 and 2013 for nine key indicators.

Myanmar - Water Sanitation Indicators