Overview of IWRM in Indonesia
Indonesia has an uneven distribution of population and water resources. This can be seen in Figure 1 below in which it can be seen that 57.5% of the country’s population is in Java Island which has only 4.2% of the country’s water resources. Figure 2 gives an overview of the water availability in Indonesia.
The following is a list of the major water resources management problems in Indonesia.
- Time and spatial water distribution
- 80% of the water available during the rainy season (5 months); 20% during the dry season
- 5% of the population resides in Java Island with only 4.2% of the national potential water resources
- Rapidly increasing water usage and water quality degradation
- Rapid population growth and density and various national development activities
- Escalating water pollution
- Increasing inter-sector competition for water and declining public water resources sector efficiency
- Water resources degradation and depletion
- Widespread deforestations
- Improper mining practices
- Land use change & rapid plantation expansions in the upper watersheds
- Water infrastructure quality degradation
- Water reservoirs sedimentation
- Water resources and irrigation infrastructure maintenance
- Financing approach
- Investment-based and supply-side government investment on water resources infrastructures
- Lack of beneficiaries role and community participations
The following is an overview of the IWRM status in Indonesia for the key water management issues in Indonesia.
- Water Supply Management
Table 1 shows the progress in the water supply management performance from 2010 to 2013.
Figure 3 shows the achievement in the provision of access to safe drinking water supply in Indonesia for the two decades from 1993 to 2013. It can be seen from Figure 3 that the access to safe drinking water supply is growing rapidly at a non-linear rate in the last 8 years. Thus, it can be concluded that the MDG target will most probably be exceeded.
- Irrigation Management
Indonesia has a total land area of about 190 million hectares, of which 55 millions hectares are agricultural land. The arable land is 24 million hectares and 20 million hectares have been planted with permanent crops. About 30% of the arable land or 7.2 million hectares are equipped with irrigation infrastructures. Also, there are 11 million hectares of grasslands and pastures. Of the total population of 252 million about 31.7 million people are working in the agriculture sector, of which 20.4 million people are in the agriculture food sector.
Table 2 shows the progress in the irrigation management performance from 2010 to 2013.
The following four figures summarizes the four major irrigation development challenges.
- Flood and Stormwater Management
Table 3 shows the flood management and coastal protection achievements from 2010 to 2014.The map below shows the extent of the flood-prone zone in Indonesia for the year 2014.
- Water Pollution Management
Figure 4 shows the river water quality status for the major rivers in Indonesia categorized under four categories, It can be seen that there are no rivers that comply with the standard clean river water quality. There are 30 slightly polluted rivers, 13 moderately polluted rivers and 6 heavily polluted rivers. Table 4 gives the water quality management targets for 13 major rivers in Indonesia.
- Sanitation Management
Figure 5 shows the progress in the provision of wastewater treatment services from 2010 to 2014. It can be seen that there has been an increased from 55.53% in 2010 to 61.04% in 2014. Figure 6 highlights the water sanitation challenges and targets.